Garden pear in Central Russia
One of the representatives of the Rosaceae family is the pear. This fruit tree in the wild is distributed throughout the continent of Eurasia from the southernmost territories to 55-60 ° north latitude. The ancient Greeks began to grow the pear as a garden plant in Europe. In Russia, breeding work to improve the taste of fruits and increase the frost resistance of pears was started by Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Garden of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Josef Gertner in the 18th century. This article will discuss the modern varieties of this fruit tree, which have proven themselves well in Central Russia.
How to choose the most, the most ...
Today there are thousands of pear varieties. From this variety, I want to choose the best, the one that will delight the whole family with beauty and delicious fruits. What are the characteristics of choosing a pear for your garden? First of all, according to the method of application - they want to plant an ornamental or fruit tree on their site.
Our gardens and private plots are rarely decorated with decorative pears, although these trees look very impressive and are successfully used in the landscape design of parks in Central Russia. An example of such decorative trees is the willow pear.
This decorative tree up to six meters high stands out against the background of other greenery with a spherical crown with drooping branches covered with narrow silvery leaves. In April-May, she looks especially smart in a white flowering outfit. Its fruits are small, green. They are not eaten. The tree is unpretentious, it can grow even on sandy soil or in urban conditions that are not very favorable for plants, it loves a lot of light, easily survives drought, but does not tolerate stagnant water.
Willow pear in the photo
Fruit trees of this species in Central Russia are grown less often than apple trees. Pears tolerate low temperatures worse, but varieties with increased winter hardiness and early ripening periods allow you to harvest in conditions of not very long summers and severe winters.
What varieties of pears are not afraid of frosts
Information about the frost resistance of most varieties of pears in their descriptions is expressed in one word - high. Even less about what kind of frosts a tree can tolerate without damage, there are messages: at the level of ancient Russian varieties of pears or at the level of the Besseminka variety. For gardeners: Pear trees of old Russian varieties and Bessemyanka, in particular, can withstand frost down to -38 ° C, their flower buds - up to -34 ° C, and ovary - up to -2 ° C. When testing varieties of pears for inclusion in the state register, it is these indicators that serve as a standard. The list below includes modern pear varieties, which in terms of frost resistance may well correspond to the reference ones.
Table of the main characteristics of winter-hardy pear varieties
** Kopetso is a branch 8-10 cm long, always straight and sits at a right angle on a large branch. * Ringworm is a small branch, up to 6 cm long. It has one well-developed bud at the end.
Some frost-resistant varieties of pears in the photo
When choosing a pear for planting, one must take into account not only the peculiarities of the climate of the area where the tree will be grown. The features of a particular site may also be important, whether there is enough free space for planting a new tree, what plantings are already there, and so on. After all, pear trees are very different, not only in terms of winter hardiness and ripening times. They are very different in:
- the height of an adult plant - from dwarf to tall;
- crown type - wide, narrow or columnar;
- type of pollination - one or more trees are needed on the site to obtain a crop;
- fruit size - large, medium or small;
- fruit taste - sweet, sweet and sour or tart with bitterness.
What does height affect?
Pears completely different in other characteristics are combined into groups in height, which a tree will reach in its tenth year of life.
The crown of tall pears begins at a height of 1.5–1.8 m from the ground, and the total height of the tree reaches six meters. Any operations for caring for them and harvesting are very difficult due to the location of the branches at a significant height. The pear of the Krasavitsa Chernenko variety can serve as a representative of tall fruit trees.
Beauty Chernenko in the photo
In the register of the State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Breeding Achievements, the Krasavitsa Chernenko pear variety is recommended for cultivation in Central Russia. The narrow-pyramidal crown of this vigorous tree rises to a height of 6 m. It tolerates frosts down to -25 ° C without any problems. The yield of Beauty Chernenko is stable and amounts to 12.7 tons per hectare. The fruits, covered with a delicate greenish-yellow skin with a beautiful red blush, weigh up to 200 g each. An important positive quality of the variety is the pear's resistance to scab.
In pear trees included in this group, the distance from the lower branches to the soil is from 60 to 150 cm. Pears of this type are found more often than others in the summer cottages and backyards of amateur gardeners. The height of these trees does not exceed 5 m. The pear of the Vidnaya variety raises the branches of the narrow-pyramidal crown just to such a height.
Pear seen in the photo
The lower branches of such pears are located 55–70 cm above the ground, and the tree itself reaches 4–4.5 m in height. The pear of the Belorusskaya late variety gives a good idea of the undersized trees, which have proven themselves well in the North-West and Central regions of Russia.
Belarusian late in the photo
This pear can withstand winter frosts down to -30 ° C. The tree grows up to 4 m tall. In its rounded crown, orange-yellow fruits weighing 120 g ripen at the end of September. The taste of these pears by tasters is 4.2 points. The yield, which was obtained over several years of testing, averaged 12.2 t / ha.
The height of the trunk to the lower branches of such pears is no more than 40 cm. The height of an adult tree is about 3 m. Often such trees are obtained by grafting a pear of some sort onto a dwarf tree. But there are also dwarf forms of this plant. Pear Chizhovskaya is actually a rooted tree, that is, grown from a seed or cuttings, and not obtained by grafting it onto a dwarf rootstock.
Pear variety Chizhovskaya in the photo
The oval crown of the Chizhovskaya pear rises no higher than 2.5 m. The frost resistance of the variety is high - up to -30 ° C. Fruits, yellowish-green with a pleasant sour-sweet taste, weighing 100–120 g, ripen in late August or early September. According to amateur gardeners, about 50 kg of pears are obtained annually from one Chizhovskaya pear plant.
The shape of the crown of a future pear can be a decisive moment when choosing a seedling variety. After all, the area that the root system of a tree will occupy fully coincides with the projection of its crown. For gardeners who do not have a lot of space for growing pears, trees with a narrow crown - narrow pyramidal - are more suitable.
If there is enough free space, then you can plant pears with a spreading crown - oval or round. The crowns of such trees already in the year of planting require formation so that in the future the branches do not break off under the weight of the fruits.
And very little space will be taken by the columnar forms of this fruit tree. The crown of such trees does not require formation. They carry out only sanitary or minimal cosmetic trimming if necessary.
Your own pollinator
Most Rosaceae plants require cross-pollination for fruit setting. Cross pollination is called such pollination when the pollen of a plant of the same species, but of a different variety, must necessarily get on the flowers of a plant of one variety. Most pears are no exception to this rule.
Bees and other insects carry pollen from one flowering tree to another, but in the conditions of Central Russia, often during the flowering of pears, cold, rainy or very windy weather can interfere with cross-pollination. Through the efforts of breeders, varieties of pear trees have appeared, for which their own pollen is sufficient for fruiting. Such pear varieties are called self-fertile or self-pollinating. The list of this category of plants, given below, includes only pear varieties included in the state register:
Pears of the Chizhovskaya variety
- In memory of Yakovlev
Pears of the Pamyati Yakovlev variety
Branch with pears of the Rogneda variety
- Skorospelka from Michurinsk;
Branch with pear fruits of Skorospelka variety from Michurinsk
- Clapp's favorite;
Pears of the variety Lyubimitsa Klappa
Branch with pears of the Marble variety
- Simply Maria.
Branch with pears of the variety Prosto Maria
The largest pear
Pear fruits in size, and accordingly in weight, can be large, medium or small. Small pears are considered technical. They can also be eaten fresh, but more often such pears are used for processing. Large and medium-sized fruits are intended for table (fresh consumption) or universal (for food and conservation) use.
Large and medium-sized pears for their intended purpose are table pears, that is, intended for eating fresh, or universal, that is, suitable for eating fresh and processed - jam, jam, jam, home canning, and so on. The table shows the most common pear varieties. They are arranged in descending order of fruit weight.
Pear fruit weight table
When the pear is ripe
In the description of the characteristics of pear varieties in the state register, the ripening period from early summer to late autumn is indicated. The exact dates cannot be named because they depend on the weather conditions in the current year and the area of pear cultivation. But gardeners in a practical way established the correspondence of these periods with more specific calendar dates.
Pear ripening table
Even novice gardeners are quite capable of getting a harvest of delicious juicy pear fruits in Central Russia. Frost-resistant varieties of this fruit tree do not require special care. With the right choice of variety and observance of the rules for growing pears, they give a stable annual harvest.
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The best varieties of pears for planting in the Moscow region and central Russia with photos and descriptions. How to properly plant a pear orchard. Tips from an experienced gardener
In the 50s - 60s of the last century, most gardeners of the Central Russian region grew 2 varieties of pears: Bessemyanka and Tonkovetka, whose fruits were small in size, were dryish, albeit sweet, and were not stored at all.
In 1955-56, the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.I. Timiryazeva brought out the Lada and Chizhovskaya pears, which are stored a little longer, but are inferior in taste to the southern varieties. How to choose the best pear varieties for the Moscow region and central Russia?
What if you want to grow juicy and sweet fruits, is it possible in a cool temperate climate?
To get a high yield in the fall, it is important to choose a good variety of pears correctly. The varieties described below are considered the best.
The variety was bred by crossing Forest Beauty and Venus pears. The second name of the variety is “Excellent Daughter”. The fruits are sweet, juicy, fleshy, with a pleasant aroma. The peel changes color from greenish-light green in the middle of summer, to yellow closer to August. On the side where the sun's rays fall more, a reddish-orange tint is formed.
The fruits are large, weighing up to 200 g. Maturity is determined not only by color, but also by the density of the fruits - if they are hard, they are left for further ripening.
Planting is carried out in winter or autumn. In the autumn, it is recommended to plant seedlings in mid to late September, choosing light areas with protection from strong winds. Ripe fruits are harvested in early September.
The variety bred at the Agricultural Academy named after Timiryazev. When crossing, we used the Olga variety and used several pollinators, including Lyubimaya Klappa, Kashkarnok, Forest Beauty. The tree is characterized by a rounded shape, dark shoots. Ripe fruits reach a mass of about 100 g. The shape of the fruits is pear-shaped, asymmetric, slightly bumpy. The peel is thin, with a yellow tinge. The pulp is oily, juicy, snow-white. The taste is sweet and sour, not cloying. The fruits reach maturity in early autumn.
It is recommended to choose loose soil for planting the Bere Moskovskaya variety. The tree prefers sunny, warm areas. The advantages include high winter hardiness and resistance to scab and fruit rot. Begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years. Productivity remains at a high level for a long time.
A high-yielding autumn variety with a table purpose. The trees are strong, reaching a height of more than 4 m. After 5-7 years at a productive age, the growth rate gradually decreases. The early fruiting rate of seedlings is average, fruiting begins 5-7 years after the seedling is planted.
The fruits are medium in size, reaching a mass of 135-155 g, less often 180 g. Pears are characterized by a regular classical shape, a smooth surface. When harvested, the peel of the fruit has an emerald hue. When fully ripe, it becomes emerald-amber. The snow-white pulp is oily, has a fine-grained consistency, a pleasant aroma, a sweet-sour aftertaste with a slight astringency. Harvesting occurs in the second half of September.
The variety requires careful collection of pears, since they crumble strongly when overripe, and falling on the ground is fraught with a decrease in the shelf life.
In memory of Yakovlev
The pear variety was bred by breeders of the Michurin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute. Success was obtained by crossing the Tema pear with the French variety Olivier de Serre.
The variety has medium and large fruits with a smooth golden yellow skin. The mass of one pear reaches up to 200 g. The stem is long, curved, not thick. The pulp is juicy, sweet, there is no astringency. Fruiting begins 4-5 years after the seedling is planted. The full harvest is obtained from the age of 7 years of the tree. At this age, more than 20 kg of juicy fruits are harvested from one tree. In the future, the yield increases.
Planting a seedling is recommended in the spring, less often the procedure is performed in the fall. To begin with, choose a place well-lit by the sun, where the tree will be protected from the winds. It is ideal to choose a site at a low elevation. The fruits ripen in the second half of September. The harvest is stored for up to one and a half months.
The variety was bred in the 80s of the last century. The name was obtained due to the fact that the main goal of the breeders was to create a variety intended for cultivation in the gardens of the Moscow region.
The fruits are characterized by an average weight, reaching about 120 g. The shape of pears is wide, the peel is yellow with a greenish tinge, on the surface of the fruit there are small black dots. The pulp is snow-white, dense and juicy, with a sweet and sour taste and a pronounced aroma.
Planting seedlings is permissible in the spring (April-May) and autumn (October). When planting in spring, seedlings quickly take root over the summer and tolerate winter well. Autumn planting provides increased winter hardiness.
Begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting. A one- or two-year-old plant is chosen for planting. Up to 60 kg of harvest is harvested from the tree. From 1 hectare it is possible to get 15-20 tons of pears. Harvesting occurs in early September-late October.
The variety was bred in the Voronezh region in 1965, crossing Lesnaya Krasavitsa and Bere Zimnaya pears. The pulp is tender, tasty, creamy, sweet taste, coarse-grained structure, pleasant aroma. The weight of one pear reaches 130-170 g, sometimes larger specimens are removed - up to 220 g. The peel is golden-green, covered with a red, marble blush.
For planting, select areas with loamy, loose and nutritious soil. If the soil is clayey or sandy, additionally add humus, peat or manure. Planting a seedling occurs in spring or autumn. For spring planting, it is recommended to carry out the procedure in May. In autumn, a pear is planted in October, and the harvest will take place from September.
Dessert Rossoshanskaya late
Belongs to late varieties, ripening of fruits comes at the beginning of September. Dessert pear can be stored until January under proper storage conditions.... A hybrid, the result of crossing the varieties Lyubimitsa Klappa and Tonkovotka, bred in 1952. The tree is vigorous, more than 6 m in height, the seedling has a narrow pyramidal trunk, gray in color, an adult tree forms a wide and smooth trunk. The crown of the pear is branched, young branches are gray, looking up.
The fruit is large enough, weighing up to 180 grams, dark green tones at the beginning of ripening and brown-red shades by autumn. Fastened on branches of 6 pieces on thick stalks. Harvesting begins at 3 - 4 years, the yield percentage is high. Sweet to taste, with soft skin and juicy pulp.
Pear Belarusian late
Bred in Belarus. The variety is late, ripening at the beginning of September. Small tree, no more than 3.5 m in height, branches look straight up, the crown is gray-brown, smooth. Leaves are light green, oblong in shape, with uneven edges. Flowering occurs at the beginning of spring, the inflorescences are white, with a pleasant aroma.
Fruits are dull, light green in color, changing to orange-red shades during the summer. The peel of the pear is rough, rather dense, with small black spots. The stalks are short, the pear is squeezed onto the branches in pairs. The pear tastes fleshy, with white flesh, juicy, has a slight sourness... The pear is winter-hardy, not subject to pests and diseases. Minus - it does not bear fruit every year, it needs rest.
Olivier de Serre
Olivier de Serre
The work of a French breeder. The variety is quite capricious, it requires special conditions for growth and careful care. The tree is medium-sized, the crown is compact, the branches are directed upwards. Crown of brownish shades, smooth, slightly flaky... During the summer, it forms many new branches, which reduces the yield, so it is important to remove excess branches in the fall. The leaves are shiny, dark green, rounded.
Fruits can weigh more than 400 grams... In appearance, the fruits are small, round in shape, with a thick skin. The whole fruit is covered with red spots, the surface is bumpy, uneven. The pear is sweet, with white fleshy pulp and a light pleasant aroma. The pear ripens by September and is stored harvested until spring.. It is resistant to diseases, but in severe winters it needs additional shelter, otherwise the amount of harvest in the next year decreases.
Pear of late ripening Bere Ardanpon
It was bred in Belgium by N. Ardanpon in 1759. This winter-hardy undersized hybrid requires special care. It prefers to grow in the sun, heat and well-moisturized soil - only under these conditions does the tree bear fruit. The tree is vigorous, with a dense crown of brownish-gray color... Young branches are thin, not lowered, The leaf blade is pointed, dark green in color, slightly pointed in shape. Blooms in early spring, with white fragrant inflorescences.
Fruits are large, green in mid-summer and reddish when fully ripe closer to autumn. A pear with a thin, smooth skin. This variety fell in love with gardeners because of its attractive presentation., which persists until cold weather. The pear is sweet to taste, with white, fleshy flesh. It tolerates winter firmly, but it is better to cover young seedlings.
The Gera variety is famous for its large fruits.
The same applies to winter varieties, which appeared as a result of crossing Reale Turin and Daughter of the Dawn. The variety is not particularly different from others, but because of its large fruits, it fell in love with gardeners. One pear can weigh up to 280 grams! In addition, the fruits have light green hues, which change to reddish during the ripening process. Not inferior in taste, pears are sweet, with fine-grained cream-colored pulp. They have a delicate, slightly sour taste, with a pleasant aroma.
The tree is medium-sized, no more than 6 m high, with spreading branches, crown, brownish color. Able to give a large amount of harvest annually, not picky about conditions and care. Plucked fruits can be stored for several months. In addition, the variety is quite resistant to diseases, not afraid of insects, frost-resistant.
Another winter pear, a hybrid obtained by crossing the Daughter of Zarya and Talgar beauty varieties. Possesses excellent resistance to frost and disease... It has a pyramidal crown shape, no more than 5 m high. The branches are thin, look up, gray-brown in color. The leaves are rounded, dark green in color, small light streaks are clearly visible. Blooms in early spring, with white fragrant inflorescences.
High yield variety, by weight one fruit from 140 to 210 grams, can remain on the tree for a long time and can be stored for a long time when assembled Fruits are light green in color; towards autumn they become yellowish, slightly elongated. Sweet to taste, with fleshy pulp, have a delicate pleasant aroma.
Late varieties of pear
11. Pear "Belarusian late"
Typical winter cultivar, which is a medium-sized tree with medium vigor, with a spherical and very dense crown. The leaf blades are light green in color, rather oblong, elliptical in shape with a long pointed. Pears reach a mass of 120 grams, have a wide pear-shaped shape. The fruits are orange-yellow in color, have a slight crimson blurred tan on the southern side of the fruit.
The pulp of the pear is snow-white, medium in density, but tender, with an abundance of juice, buttery. Tasters rate the taste at 4.2 points out of the maximum five points (amateur gardeners characterize the taste as sweet and sour with a refreshing sourness). Of the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted its high yield, reaching 130 centners per hectare in some regions.
Pear Belorussian late. © Marisad
12. Pear "Yuryevskaya"
Typical early winter variety, which is a vigorous tree with a pyramid-shaped crown with straight, reddish-brown, rounded shoots. Leaf blades are green, elliptical, short-pointed. Pears reach a weight of 130 grams, have a short pear-shaped shape. A very thick peduncle is noted, which is slightly curved, and a weak funnel. The fruits are greenish-yellow in color, have a slight brown, blurred tan on the southern side of the fruit.
The pear's pulp is greenish-creamy, rather dense, tender, with an abundance of juice. Tasters rate the palatability 4.5 points out of the maximum five points (amateur gardeners characterize the taste as sweet and sour with a pleasant pear aroma). Fruits are usually harvested in late September - early October, and it is better to eat them in mid-October, they usually lie before the New Year. Of the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted its high yield, reaching 127 centners per hectare in some regions.
13. Pear "Novella"
Typical winter, table variety, which is a medium-sized tree with a crown in the form of a narrow pyramid with thick, straight, geniculate, yellow, bare shoots. Leaf blades are green in color, ovoid, with a smooth and shiny surface. Pears reach a weight of 135 grams, have a short pear-shaped shape. A blunt-conical funnel is noted. The fruits are greenish in color, have a slight pinkish blurred tan on the southern side of the fruit. If you take a closer look at the fetus, you can see the subcutaneous dots of medium size.
The pulp of the pear is creamy, has granules, medium in density, with an abundance of juice. Tasters rate the palatability at 4.3 points out of a maximum of five points (amateur gardeners characterize the taste as sour-sweet with a medium pear aroma). Of the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted its high yield, reaching 150 centners per hectare in some regions.
14. Pear "Otradnenskaya"
Typical late autumn variety, which is a medium-sized tree with a spreading crown, straight, geniculate shoots. The leaf blades are dark green in color, broadly ovate, with a smooth surface. Pears reach a mass of 99 grams, have an oblong-rounded regular shape. A very shallow funnel was noted. The fruits are greenish-yellow and have a slight tan on the south side of the fruit.
The pear's pulp is whitish-creamy, tender, with an abundance of juice. Tasters rate the palatability at 4.3 points out of a maximum of five points. Of the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted its high yield, reaching 200 centners per hectare and even more in some regions.
Pear Otradnenskaya. © Agronomu
15. Pear "Extravaganza"
Typical winter variety, which is a medium-sized tree with a crown in the form of a wide pyramid with medium-sized arcuate, brown-brown shoots, devoid of pubescence. Leaf blades are green in color, ovoid, with a smooth surface. Pears reach a weight of 130 grams, have an elongated pear-shaped shape. The absence of a funnel and saucer was noted. The fruits are greenish-yellow in color, have a slight crimson, washed-out tan on the southern side of the fruit. If you take a closer look at the fetus, you can see the subcutaneous dots of medium size.
Pear pulp is snow-white, semi-oily. Tasters rate the palatability 4.4 points out of a maximum of five points. Of the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted its high yield, reaching 150 centners per hectare in some regions.
We have described the most interesting and common pear varieties (at least judging by the presence in nurseries). In the comments, please write your favorite pear varieties and be sure to indicate in which region you live. Our readers will be very grateful to you!