Growing tomato seedlings: sowing, picking, watering and feeding, hardening
A good harvest of tomatoes can only be obtained from quality seedlings. Due to the short summer, climatic conditions in some regions do not allow growing tomatoes in another way. That is why, starting from February-March, summer residents and gardeners begin to grow seedlings at home.
So that the future harvest of tomatoes does not disappoint you, you need to get acquainted in detail with the rules for planting seeds, picking seedlings, with the methods of watering and feeding.
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings
The soil that will be used for sowing seeds should be frozen for two weeks before planting on a cold balcony or outdoors. This mandatory procedure is essential for pest control. After all, it is no secret that microorganisms and larvae, dangerous to plants, perfectly preserve their vital activity while being in the soil.
Seeds also need special preparation - this is keeping them in a manganese solution, soaking in a biostimulator and mandatory hardening.
And one more important point is the pre-sowing disinfection of all planting tanks. Boxes, cups, pots or containers are thoroughly washed in a weak manganese solution before filling with soil. All containers should be with drainage holes and trays.
The process of planting seeds is carried out in the following order:
- The containers are filled with moistened soil.
- The soil mixture is leveled and small grooves are dug at a distance of 3 centimeters from each other at a depth of 0.5 cm.
- The distance between the seeds is 1 cm.
- The planted seeds are crushed with a thin layer of earth (no more than 1 cm).
The containers, together with the pallets, are placed in a dark but warm room, having previously covered them with any film. In a bright room, the seeds can overheat in direct sunlight and there will be no shoots.
The film is removed after about 6-7 days. At this time, the first shoots will already begin to appear, and they will need a sufficient amount of sunlight.
Pickling tomato seedlings
When at least 2 leaves are formed on young seedlings, and this is about two weeks later, you can start picking. Seedlings must be transplanted into large cups or pots. At this stage of growing seedlings, you can use improvised materials instead of containers - plastic bottles, boxes and jars of yoghurts, juices, mayonnaise, kefirs, etc.
If the seeds were originally planted one at a time in an individual pot, then picking is done very easily and quickly by transshipment. The plant, together with the earthy clod, is carefully transferred to a larger container. This method relieves plants of the stress they receive at the time of transplantation and minimizes the adaptation time in a new place.
If the seedlings grow in a large wooden box, then when picking, each seedling is carefully separated from each other and transplanted into separate small cups. If a thin root is damaged, the plant still needs to be planted, since this culture takes root well in almost any conditions. Experienced summer residents even purposely pinch the main root so that lateral root processes appear faster.
If the root accidentally breaks off completely during transplantation, you can put the plant in water and very soon it will have new roots.
Watering tomato seedlings
Tomatoes are a plant that is resistant to temperature drop and drought. These crops require moderate watering. With an excess of moisture, the plant will begin to stretch, and the immunity will weaken.
From planting seeds to picking, the irrigation pattern will change at every stage. Before germination, the planted seeds are watered once a day in the morning with water at room temperature. Watering can be replaced by soil spraying.
From the moment the seedlings appear, irrigation is carried out every five days with warm, settled or filtered water. During this period, it is very important not to allow excessive waterlogging of the soil, as young plants will get sick with the "black leg" and die. The air humidity should also not be high, it is advisable to carry out regular ventilation, especially in hot and sunny weather.
After picking tomato seedlings, watering is carried out only after the top soil has dried, that is, if necessary. Sometimes it is very useful to loosen the soil instead of the next watering.
Top dressing of tomato seedlings
When growing seedlings of tomatoes, top dressing is applied three times with an interval of 15 days. For the first time, seedlings are fed after a pick (after about half a month). Each summer resident can choose one of the most convenient options for mineral or organic fertilizers:
- To prepare this top dressing, you will need urea (0.5 grams), superphosphate (4 grams), potassium salt (1.5 grams) and 1 liter of water.
- This fertilizer consists of two liters of boiling water and a tablespoon of wood ash. It is used after daily infusion and straining.
- Top dressing consists of ammonium nitrate (about 0.5 grams), superphosphate (about 4 grams), potassium sulfate (2 grams) and 1 liter of water.
- A ready-made infusion based on banana skins or egg shells is added to water (in a ratio of one to three) and used for watering.
Preparation: prepared organic waste is poured into a 3 liter jar (more than half of the jar) and poured with warm water. Within three days, the liquid is infused in a dark and warm place.
Hardening tomato seedlings
Hardening of tomato seedlings is carried out at a temperature of at least 12 degrees Celsius. Around the middle of spring, such temperature conditions can be created on a loggia or a glazed balcony. This procedure helps to strengthen the immunity of plants. Hardened seedlings will more easily tolerate temperature extremes and exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
For the first week, containers with seedlings are on a closed balcony. Starting from the second week, the plants gradually become accustomed to the cold air. To do this, you need to open a window on the balcony every day, first for about 20 minutes, and then gradually add 10-15 minutes. This hardening continues until transplanting into open beds. Before the day of planting seedlings in the ground, it is recommended to leave the plants in the fresh air for 24 hours.
In the absence of a balcony, tempering can be carried out on the windowsill, periodically opening the window.
Seedlings that will yield a large yield should be large, juicy, dark green leaves and buds ready to open. Such a healthy appearance can only be found in seedlings that have been properly and patiently looked after.
Video - growing tomato seedlings: from seedlings to picking
Seedlings of tomatoes: from seedlings to picking
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
I have 20 years of experience as a summer cottage. There were mistakes and mistakes, but there were also victories. So I want to share my secret of growing strong and healthy tomato seedlings.
First I disinfect seeds from late blight pathogens... To do this, I soak the planting material in a strong solution of potassium permanganate (it is important that it is not pink, but dark cherry color).
To increase the resistance of seeds to other diseases (and at the same time to increase the cold resistance of plants), I additionally soak them in water, to which I add a growth stimulant. I sow at the beginning of April, not earlier, since only with a long daylight hours can you grow good seedlings.
Many people buy it in horticultural centers. But on my mistakes, I became convinced that this should not be done, since this purchased product consists almost exclusively of peat with the addition of any mineral fertilizers. In such soil, seeds germinate more slowly, young sprouts are very weak, and sometimes even die.
Therefore, I prepare the soil myself, mixing in equal shares of compost, leaf and turf soil... I sift everything. I sow seeds of different varieties in separate pots. Planting depth - 1 cm. I moisten the soil before planting. Then I expose everything near the batteries, because the germination temperature should be in the range of 18-21 °. Seedlings have appeared - I provide them with regular watering. As soon as the loops appear on the sprouts, I take out the pots on a glazed cold loggia (during the day there is usually 15-16 °, and at night from 9 ° to 13 °) and I don't return the seedlings to the apartment anymore.
The relatively low temperature inhibits the growth of seedlings.
When two true leaves appear on them, I feed them with complex fertilizer at the rate of 0.5 tsp. 10 liters of water. If the seeds were sown in the first decade of April, then by the third they already reach a height of about 10 cm and are sent to the country.
In advance, as soon as the land on the site allows, I put the arcs at the proposed landing site - under the greenhouse. I cover them with film or non-woven material. The brought seedlings (I have only five to eight bowls, depending on the number of varieties), I immediately cut them into prepared pots with the same soil mixture as for sowing, three to four pieces (not scary!) In each (photo 1 ).
I water and spray with water at room temperature several times. At this time, a temperature comfortable for the growth and survival of seedlings is set in the greenhouse, and they start growing very quickly.
I spend one top dressing urea (15 g per 10 l of water) and one preventive treatment on leaves against late blight (before planting). I harden the seedlings by opening the ends of the greenhouse.
My seedlings grow so powerful, stocky, with dark green leaves and a well-developed root system (photo 2) that after dividing it, the plants do not suffer at all when planting.
I plant seedlings in a permanent place in mid or late May. If the weather is cool at the time of planting, I treat the plants with a solution of an anti-stress drug so that the seedlings are not inhibited. I plant it in well-spilled holes and immediately mulch the soil (photo 3). If the weather is hot and sunny, I shade it.
Let's calculate the advantages of my method.
- Saving space in the apartment, no glasses or boxes are needed.
- Convenience of transportation.
- The seedlings are stocky, with a thick stem, with a powerful root system.
- The survival rate is one hundred percent.
- I always have a good harvest (photo 4).
Growing seedlings begins in January, February and even in the first half of March, therefore it is important illumination... In winter, the illumination on the windowsill is 100 times less than in summer, and without additional lighting, the plants stretch out strongly. So the presence of fluorescent lamps - a prerequisite growing early seedlings. The seedlings are illuminated for 14-16 hours, turning off the lamp only for the night. Place the lamp as close to the plants as possible, leaving a gap of 1-1.5 cm.
Illumination is also adjustable number of plants per unit area. The table, based on many years of research, shows the optimal feeding areas for various seedlings. When planted densely, seedlings will be thin, pale and unlikely to yield a good harvest.
Gardeners often make a gross mistake: they sow earlier and denser. These two desires are incompatible. If not, sow later, but provide good illumination. The younger the seedlings are, the less feeding area it is content with.
|Culture||Growing method (in a room, greenhouse, greenhouse)||Seedling age from seedlings, days||Feeding area, cm||Seed sowing time||Seedling planting time|
|early||Potted with a pick of seedlings *||6×6||january||april|
|average||Sowing under film||6×6||Martha||april|
|late||Sowing in open ground beds||6×6||april||May|
|Cauliflower broccoli||Potted with a pick of seedlings||6×6||february||april|
|very early (under the film)||Potted with a pick of seedlings *||10×10||february||april|
|early||Potted with a pick of seedlings *||10×10||february||May|
|Tomatoes mass planting dates:|
|first term||Potless with a pick of seedlings||45||6×6||Martha||May|
|second term||Potless without picking||5×6||april||May|
|early||Potted with a pick * or without a pick of seedlings||6×6||february||May|
|massive landing dates||Potless without picking||5×4||Martha||May|
|Eggplant||Potless without picking||5×6||Martha||May|
|Cucumbers, zucchini, watermelons, melons **||Potless without picking||8×8||Martha||May|
|Celery||Potted with a dive||5×5||january||april|
|Salad||Potless without picking||3×5||March 1-5||april|
|Bow||Cassettes without picking||3×3||february||april|
|* It is recommended to use cassettes for picking seedlings followed by transplanting into a pot.|
** Planting seedlings under film.
Growing a planting - from tomatoes to harvest
How to plant seedlings Before
tomato how to plant seedlings in a greenhouse in a tomato or greenhouse, you need to decide on when, date to do it. The most suitable when, option 4-5 days, the average daily temperature (the sum of day and night temperatures divided by sex) is not lower than 8 dates.
In degrees, it turns out something like this:
- end: greenhouse April - mid-May
- into the ground: May end - early June
MANDATORY! Before planting seedlings, it needs to be hardened in the sun for 4-5 days - we start from 40-50 minutes and gradually bring it to 4-5 hours.
It is better to do the landing either at dawn, or when, but it is cool at sunset.
Now about the process of planting tomato seedlings.
Having previously wetted the soil in the seedlings from the container, you need to carefully remove the seedling from the ground with a lump. If it was not possible to keep the lump exposed, the soil roots must be dipped in clay clay - a chatterbox, slurry and water (in a ratio of 1: 1: 10).
even, although dipping a whole lump of land into such a chatterbox, you definitely won't do worse!
Only a talker - remember must be liquid (kefir how)!
The holes in the garden for planting tomato seedlings do little more than a lump of earth, in a checkerboard pattern.
Then, after watering abundant, you need to give time to soak in only water and then plant the seedlings on the tomatoes (it does not hurt to "spread" a little straw under the bottom, especially soaked with biological products).
Overgrown seedlings, bushes are laid, as described longitudinal - in the hole above.
Even if you did everything right, tomato seedlings can wither. The most common reasons for this are:
- not enough holes are spilled before landing
- exposed roots for a long time were in the air and weathered
- finally, when watering, the water got on the leaves of the tomatoes (plants do not like this)
If the leaves of the tomatoes first wither and then fall off, there is an excess of ammonia (fresh manure). Therefore, remember - no fresh manure, only humus!
Video "planting a tomato seedling in open ground"
Hardening "Video of tomato seedlings"
How to help tomatoes harvest
As you can imagine, by your actions (like, evenly and inactively) you can either help the harvest to ripen, or, alas, prevent it. Since you don't immediately want to talk about the bad, let's first see how you can help your tomatoes.
The biggest problem for tomatoes in summer is More precisely. temperature, when during flowering the temperature is 32 degrees higher - while pollination does not occur and the ovaries crumble.
If you can grow tomatoes, you can regulate the temperature in the greenhouse by airing the transom through (not through the door). If in the beds, then help here will be the planting of heat-tolerant plants with sweeping leaves, for example okra, which with their leaves will create shade and coolness, and the fruits can be eaten.
Although tomatoes are self-pollinated, it will interfere, do not shake the plant once every 2-3 days. In addition, at this time, the stems will not be treated with extra bromine (10 g per bucket of water), from which the brushes are more fully knit - pluck out the extra ones later, so as not to get too small.
the fruits of that, it does not hurt to follow the tops too:
- thin plants - apply foliar dressing with too
- micronutrients thick - exclude nitrogen
If you want to get stronger plants - put a source of carbon dioxide next to it: a barrel of water and grass or any other organic matter. The smell, of course, will still be the same, but it will have a very positive effect on the growth of tomatoes.
The main "feature" - translation this is the main point of growth on the side more (the shoot is applicable for tall varieties) - during the physiological time of slowing growth, the tip of the early ripening is pinched (in the plant it pinches after the 4th-5th brush, in the late-ripening ones - the 6-8th) - after that, the plant spends more ripening on the strength of the fruits, and not on growth and stem development and how.
leaves get the first fruits faster
- be sure to mulch the beds - heat promotes more ripening, faster harvest
- process coniferous tomatoes during the hood of the reddening of the first fruit (also helps the growth of young shoots). The hood is preparing a bunch: so the young tips of pine shoots for 7 days are first kept in the cold (cellar, refrigerator), then finely chopped, poured in two parts, boiled and water for 5 minutes. Then, when it cools down, you need to strain and dilute with water in a ratio of 1 to 3.
How to accelerate ripening of fruits:
- split with a clean knife on a stem 12-15cm from the ground and insert a thin sliver into the split
- chop off part of the roots (restriction will accelerate the ripening of the fruit)
- carry out a "chemical dilution": ringing the battery sulfuric acid with water (1 to 4) and draw a belt 1-2 cm wide on the stem with a "brush" (this action prevents the products of photosynthesis from flowing out, thereby accelerating the ripening of fruits)
- delete everything old leaves before the fruiting brush
Hinder the "How" of the tomato crop
Among the big things like "interfere with the quantity", you can try and highlight the most important and, unfortunately, the most deplorable options:
1. Because of throwing away the pity of seedlings (there are a lot of seedlings, there is space), there is little thickening of the planting. Thus, you create unfavorable conditions for the growth and development of little (light tomatoes) and favorable conditions for developmental diseases. Therefore, first of all, we learn, reluctantly, to throw out the extra seedlings. As you can - the option to distribute / sell it or in advance, I do it, I do it.
2. Tomatoes require more frequent watering only immediately after that - the plantings take root better (and even then, you need to water "from before" - not wisely than a week after If). planting, to overdo it because of excessive care, then you will do, only worse: excessive watering will cause a riot of suppression, but the growth of flowers on the first inflorescences with inhibition of the first formation of tomato ovaries. In addition, tomato bushes will not develop deep roots (and so why)? most becoming "non-drought-resistant". Therefore, ask yourself one simple question - “is it necessary? you "and remember - watering and feeding only massive after fruit setting!
3. Sometimes summer residents and gardeners en masse pick off the leaves (they leave the stem almost bare) in order to fill it up sooner. But the fruits of the fruit are poured due to the products of the flowing, photosynthesis in the leaves! Where is the logic? You need to remove the leaves either old (yellowing and sick), in the case of either extreme thickening. And most importantly - remove no more than 3 leaves once. If you "overdid", then leave some of the stepsons, but be sure to remove the flower brushes from them.
Diseases of tomatoes and how to deal with them
As you can see, growing seedlings is - tomatoes are not at all difficult and even to some extent interesting. Especially if you do everything in the end and in the right way you get both healthy plants and healthy what.
And do you think the harvest, dear reader, on the topic "tomato Seedling growing"? Maybe you have some of your own secrets and observations? Please share them in the comments!
P.S. For a snack, I highly recommend watching the video "Tomatoes for Natural Farming"... The video is long and even though (1, 5h), but it's worth it:
Care of tomato seedlings
Caring for growing tomatoes includes: watering, feeding if necessary, observing light and thermal conditions and hardening seedlings before planting in the ground.
Small sprouts are watered less frequently than large, ready-to-plant bushes. The main rule is that the earthen lump should not dry out completely. It is necessary to water the plant so that when watering the whole clod is saturated with moisture, and re-watering is done only when the clod begins to dry out. That is, watering should be abundant enough, but not frequent.
Frequent watering is harmful to the plant. Constantly moist soil can lead to rotting of the stem and roots, diseases, acidification of the soil and poor nutrition of the seedlings.
Water for irrigation should be separated and warm - 20-22 degrees.
For the healthy growth and development of tomato seedlings, some important trace elements are required, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and many others.
Tomatoes that are grown in specialized soil often do not require additional feeding. A well-adapted potting mix contains sufficient nutrients.
But until you find a good mixture and you are convinced of its quality, you may come across not very suitable specimens. If you notice that the sprouts do not feel well, develop slowly and are deficient in nutrients, then this indicates that they need help in the form of feeding. To know what to fertilize with - read our article on fertilizing.
You can feed tomato seedlings 10-12 days after picking. A universal recipe for feeding: 10 l of water + 15 g of ammonium nitrate + 30-40 g of superphosphate + 10-15 g of potassium sulfate.
If one feeding is not enough, then after 10-15 days the sprouts are fed again, in the same proportions.
If you do not accept chemical fertilizers. Then you can replace them with chicken droppings and ash.
Light and temperature conditions
The optimum temperature for growing seedlings is 22-24 degrees. And the daylight hours are 12 hours long. South windows are desirable.
If these conditions are not met, then the growth of seedlings slows down, it withers, stretches out. This is the way to weak seedlings, which, even after planting, will have weak immunity and be subject to disease.
With a lack of lighting, additional lighting with fluorescent lamps is required.
Hardening of seedlings before planting in the ground
10-12 days before planting, experienced gardeners practice hardening seedlings. This is necessary so that the seedling grown in greenhouse conditions, at a stable temperature, inside the apartment, is not shocked by external weather conditions.
This is done by lowering the ambient temperature. You can start with airing. Then take out the seedlings to the balcony or loggia, for a short time. Gradually, the time spent by seedlings in the fresh air increases. In recent days, the seedlings should be on the balcony constantly.
This is good for her. As a rule, the plant begins to restrain its growth, paying more attention to the development of the root system. The stem thickens, the leaves acquire an intense green color, the plant gets used to the sun and wind.
Well-prepared seedlings take root well and are ready for unfavorable spring weather surprises. If everything is done correctly, then by the time of planting, the seedlings should have at least 7 true leaves, and the stem thickness at least 7 mm, height up to 25 cm. In this case, the roots should occupy the entire volume of the pot.
We hope that our article was helpful to you. The best compliment would be if you share it with your friends and acquaintances on social networks.
The agrotechnical method was developed on the basis of agrotechnical experiments and long-term observations of the growth and development of vegetable crops.
Most of the most important parameters of sowing seeds for seedlings are listed in table number 1 and table number 2. Do not forget to make corrections for your region!
|Name of culture, days||Seedling age, days||Seed sowing date||Shoots, days||Seedling planting date|
|Middle and late tomatoes|
|Sweet and bitter pepper|
|Name of culture||Seedling age, days from germination||The emergence of seedlings, days||Dates of planting seedlings|
|Tomatoes||Greenhouse open ground||Greenhouse - mid-May, open ground - early June|
|Cucumbers||greenhouse open ground||Greenhouse - the twenties of May, open ground - early June|
|Eggplant||Greenhouse - end of May|
|Pepper||Greenhouse - end of May|
|Head salad||Greenhouse - mid-April, open ground - mid-May|
|Zucchini, pumpkin||greenhouse - mid-May, open ground - early June|
3 options for feeding tomatoes in the open field
For this purpose, you can use fertilizers that are offered by specialized outlets. However, folk methods of feeding tomatoes are very popular among amateur gardeners.
Fermented milk product - serum will help not only strengthen the plant, but will also prevent the development of fungal diseases. To do this, you need to dilute 1 liter of whey in 10 liters of water. This top dressing is applied to the root of the tomatoes.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, the leaves of the plant should be sprayed with pure serum. Before spraying, the agent must be thoroughly filtered so that the spray bottle does not get clogged.
A good effect is given by feeding a tomato from herbal infusion. For this, a container of 50 liters must be filled with chopped grass (nettle, dandelion, quinoa, schirin). Top up the remaining volume with water and let it brew for at least one week.
The liquid in the container should ferment and turn brown. This is a means for root feeding of tomatoes. Before use, it should be diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10 (for 10 liters of water - 1 liter of infusion).
One of the most popular fertilizers for tomatoes is considered to be manure or bird droppings. For cooking, you need 1 glass of cow (horse) manure or the same amount of chicken (goose or other) dung. Manure (droppings) placed in a spacious container should be poured with 10 liters of water.
To enhance the effect, you can add 1 cup of wood ash to the resulting mixture. The contents of the container must be mixed and left to ferment for 7-10 days. Then the top dressing is used by adding it in the amount of 1 liter per 10-12 liters of water.
Attention! Top dressing of tomatoes is done no more than 1 time within 2 weeks. Excessive fertilization of the soil leads to abundant growth of the green mass, and slows down the process of setting and ripening fruits.
Properly done feeding the tomato after planting in open ground will create ideal conditions for the formation of a bush and abundant fruit ovary. The result of this care will be a good harvest.
Growing tomato seedlings (tomatoes): sowing time and optimal temperature conditions
The main problems with tomato seedlings and how to solve them
Tomato leaves are curled: what to do?
Growing tomato seedlings: sowing, picking, watering and feeding, hardening
Fight against late blight of tomatoes: folk methods and remedies