Fern types for growing in the garden

Fern types for growing in the garden

Read the previous part. ← Types of ferns for growing in an apartment

What ferns are suitable for growing at their summer cottage

Male dryopteris (Dryopteris filix-mas)

The genus Driopteris includes about 150 terrestrial, mainly forest species, most of which grow in a temperate climatic zone.

One of the most beautiful and widely known forest ferns is the male dryopteris filix-mas. The thick, obliquely ascending rhizome is clothed with wide soft scales and remnants of leaf petioles.

It bears at the top a bunch of large leaves with a double-pinnate plate. On the segments of the lamina, 5-8 sori are visible on the underside, located on the branching of the veins and covered with kidney-shaped coverlets. The leaves of the male thyroid grow fully only in the spring of the third year of the fern's life. Their size is different for varieties (Multicristata, Sguamilosa, Grandiceps) and, in addition, depends on the place of growth: the larger the feeding area, the larger the specimen. In winter, the rooms are kept at a temperature of about 10 ° C (on the windowsill).

Polystichum setiferum

The male shieldworm as an anthelmintic is included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation. One of the most resistant and decorative species is Dryopteris pseudomas Cristata. If this variety of Driopteris grows in a tub or in the soil of a winter garden, its leaves reach large sizes (up to 70 cm). Winters well outdoors.

Another type of the family of the shytitnikovs is distinguished by high decorativeness - multiserial bristle-bearing (Polystichum setiferum). It is a terrestrial fern with a thick, hard rhizome and double-pinnate leaves. The whole plant has a fluffy appearance due to the large number of scales on the petioles of leathery leaves, serrated or serrated along the edge (the teeth end with a bristle).

Interesting varieties Proliferum, Plumosum densum. A feature of this species is the possibility of reproduction by viviparous buds, which develop on the surface of the leaves. For rooting, the buds are separated with pieces of leaf, planted in a box or bowls at a temperature of 20-22 ° C, and after rooting - in pots. Abundant sporulation occurs in the third year of culture. Polystychum can grow successfully in the garden and rooms (10 ° C is enough in winter).

Athyrium (Athyrium filix-femina)

Perhaps the most graceful garden ferns are varietal atrium, which also grow in rooms, but shed their leaves in winter and remain dormant (Athyrium filix-femina - Multifidum, Sagittatum). These are rather large, land ferns of forest origin, characteristic of the forest zone of Eurasia and North America. They inhabit wet meadows, forests, river banks, swampy areas, going beyond the Arctic.

Collected in a spreading bunch, large leaves with short petioles covered with sparse scales and a double-triple plumose plate give a particularly decorative appearance to these plants. Leaves are light green, die off for the winter. In spring, new leaves grow from the ends of the rhizomes to replace them, and this is one of the most beautiful moments in the life of ferns.

At the beginning of its development, the leaf resembles a spirally twisted flat snail. Gradually, the leaf buds unwind and grow into adult leaves (fronds) in a few weeks. For us, the Russian name for this fern is more familiar - female kochedyzhnik. But why was it called that?

Common bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)

It turns out that the base of the plant petiole resembles in shape and size an ancient tool with which our ancestors weaved sandals - kochedyk. Hence the strange name today - kochedyzhnik. Why is it called feminine? Most likely because it has especially delicate, delicately lacy leaves, which are heavily dissected compared to other fern species. Kochedzhnik is a medicinal plant (a decoction of its rhizomes is used as an anthelmintic).

Speaking of forest ferns, one cannot fail to mention the most famous and noticeable in the forest. common bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)... Its large openwork leaves do not grow as a rosette, but each by itself from long cord-like rhizomes.

Spores rarely reproduce. Fans of "mushroom hunting" are well aware of these leaves, which look like flat umbrellas with a thin long handle - under them, wavelets and honey agarics often grow.

The bracken wakes up much later than other ferns in the forest and garden, during the flowering bird cherry. He is famous for the fact that his young shoots are eaten.

The collected sprouts are prepared on the same day: they are cleaned of leaf particles, leaving only the rods, and boiled in clean water to remove bitterness and tannins. After this preparation, you can prepare soups, side dishes, roasts, filling for hot sandwiches with cheese, sausage, ham.

The bracken is especially revered in China, Japan, purchasing its shoots in the Far East. Starch is obtained from bracken rhizomes - its content reaches 50%. In the old days, the rhizome also served as a soap.

Bracken leaves have bactericidal properties and are used for storing fruits and vegetables (they are used to transfer products during transportation and laying for winter storage in the underground). The leaf ash contains a lot of potassium; it served as a raw material for the production of glass and soap.

Read the next part. Fern agrotechnology →

E. Kuzmina, agronomist

Ferns. Relic plants in your garden

Our gardens are often located in areas where it is very difficult to grow many flowering plants. For example, in a forest or in a former swamp. And it also happens that there is simply not enough time and energy to take care of capricious plants. What if you want a beautiful and easy-care garden? There is an exit: ferns.

Ferns - the most ancient ornamental plants shrouded in beautiful legends. To date, many garden forms, varieties, differing in their size, color and shape of leaves, have already been created. They are indispensable when creating mixborders from perennials, rocky gardens or rockeries, rock gardens, retaining walls. It is also good to use them when decorating paths and paths, large clumps with plantings of both large-sized perennial herbaceous and flowering shrubs or woody plants.

Many species of ferns can be grown in the conditions of the northwest of Russia, and many amateur gardeners have already begun to collect their collections of species, forms and varieties. Someone has already created a fantastic fern garden, but someone is still ahead. Yes, such a garden is beautiful from the very beginning of spring, when amazing "snails" of leaves are just beginning to grow and unfold, until late autumn. Of the large number of known genera and species of ferns that are unpretentious in care and maintenance, there are those that can be successfully grown without shelter for the winter in our climatic conditions.

Among the most popular and common ones are the ostrich, shititnik, kochedyzhnik and chistus; onoklea and maidenhair are less common. In the collectible gardens, woodsia, centipedes, a comb and some kostenets also grow, but we will focus on the easiest varieties to care for and maintain. The ostrich has no competitor among them.

The shady garden is the most suitable place to grow most fern species. Its openwork leaves visually increase the space and do an excellent job with the role of ground cover plants. Ferns grow quite late in the spring, so it is recommended to plant early flowering plants with them: snowdrops, woodlands, crocuses, spring plants, anemone, corydalis, white flowers and other ephemeroids.


The lucky man who saw this should pluck it as quickly as possible, hide it in his bosom and run away from the forest without looking back, not allowing any evil spirits to lead him astray and take away the magic flower. If luck smiles, then this flower will give its owner wonderful abilities: the ability to understand the language of animals and birds, the gift of foresight and the ability to find treasures.

Since ancient times, these plants have enjoyed the fame of not only mysterious, but also medicinal herbs among different peoples. One of the features of many ferns - poisonous properties, which made it possible to use them as an anthelmintic agent. More often than the prophetic for these purposes, the male shield was used, but many other species have the same qualities, for example, the common bracken.

Danger of poisoning ferns does not stop many lovers to feast on these plants. Young, spirally twisted leaves of some ferns, called vayas, are prepared in a special way, after boiling them in salt water. As a result, we get real gourmet dishes that taste like mushrooms, which are especially fond of serving in the countries of the Far East.

In folk medicine, ferns are used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiseptic; Tibetan healers prescribe drugs from them for metabolic disorders.

Ferns - perennial rhizome plants that reproduce by spores. Fronts in most species are openwork, pinnately complex, sitting on strong petioles - rachis, which sometimes resemble twigs.

The sizes of ferns vary widely: from the smallest, a few centimeters, living in crevices of rocks and even in masonry, to many meters tree-like, growing in the tropics.

Ferns can be found on all continents of the planet, with the exception of, of course, Antarctica. According to various sources, there are from 6 to 10 thousand species of these plants. In the forests of Russia in the temperate zone, only a few dozen different ferns are found, however, in our conditions, a sufficient number of decorative species and varieties can be grown.

The best known, perhaps, are the male dwarf and the female cochinate - the usual inhabitants of our forests. These are perennials with non-wintering leaves, reaching sizes of 1 - 1.2 m, often used in natural-style gardens. There are numerous varieties of these ferns with branched and curled leaves or reduced size.

Among the ornamental species, one cannot fail to mention the common ostrich, which forms high bright green leaf funnels, the bristle-bearing mnogoryadnik, the spear-shaped m. And the Brown m. With pointed hard fronds, which often persist after winter.

The rounded leaves of the Far Eastern maidenhair stop-shaped on thin black petioles seem to be woven into light lace. A centipede leaflet with 4 whole leaves of a light green color somewhat resembles a lungwort. Increasingly, in decorative plantings such spectacular ferns as sensitive and large osmunda royal are used.

Growing conditions

When choosing places on the site for growing ferns, it should be borne in mind that most of them prefer shady areas with loose acidified soils containing a lot of organic matter. Few species, such as leaflets or centipedes, thrive on neutral soils. Osmunda, telipteris, onoclei and ostriches tolerate waterlogged substrates well.

On a personal plot ferns planted in shady flower beds, under trees and shrubs, forming groups of different species. Since many of them are moisture-loving, they are great for decorating ponds, streams, ornamental swamps.

Plant propagation

The plant propagates by seed, vegetatively. The seed method is very laborious and takes a lot of time. Shrubs grown from seeds will bloom only for 5-6 years. Seeds for planting are harvested in the fall, then soaked for several days in plenty of water. The floating seeds are thrown away, only those that have sunk to the bottom surface are sown. Seeds planted in the fall in the ground will sprout in a year.

A faster way to grow is by planting cuttings. Planting material is harvested in the summer, after the end of the flowering period. For cutting, shoots are taken, about 10-12 cm long. They are planted in sod soil, covered with a layer of sand on top. During the rooting period, it is necessary to constantly maintain soil moisture. The stalk takes root in the crown of the head for two months. In the open ground, fathoms are transplanted after they reach 60 cm in height.

Elbows are an equally effective breeding method. For this purpose, they choose a young, healthy branch, tilt it to the ground, and fix it. The part of the shoot immersed in the ground is covered with soil. The soil at the location of the bend must be kept moist. Separate the rooted branch next spring.

How to make soil for seedlings - leaf, peat, humus, woody, turf, compost, coniferous and heather

Leaf land
usually used for sowing seeds of begonia, cyclamen, primrose, camellia. It is loose and rich in humus. For its manufacture, healthy (not affected by diseases) leaves of fruit plants, elm, linden ash and maple are used, i.e. leaves of those plants in which there is no or a small amount of tannins. Do not use chestnut, oak and willow leaves.

To make leafy soil for seedlings, it is necessary in the fall to collect the fallen leaves of these plants, lay them down, soak them with a mullein and compact. In the summer of next year, until July, stir several times, moisten. The leaves should be half decomposed by July. While stirring, add 0.5 kg of lime per cubic meter of leaves to reduce acidity.
After 2 years, leafy soil with a pH of 5-6 will be ready for use.

Peat land perfect for sowing seeds and growing hydrangeas, ferns, orchids and other plants. It is rich in humus and loose. To harvest it, peat, manure and lime are required. Lay in layers, height (60-70 cm). Within 2-3 years of regular mixing and watering with slurry, the peat land will be ready for use. Do not overdry the peat soil, it should be in constant moisture.

Humus earth or rotted manure is an
addition to the soil for seedlings, in its pure form it is not used. If humus soil is harvested from cow dung, then it will be heavy, if from horse dung, then it will be light.

Humus soil with a pH of 8 will be ready for use in 2-3 years. Put the manure in a pile, cover it with peat on top and stir periodically.

Woody earth
it cooks faster, but it is not very nutritious as it consists of bark, twigs, sawdust and stump residues. It improves the properties of the soil and is an additional element in the earthen mixture.

Materials for harvesting wood land are folded in bundles and moistened with a mullein. Mix periodically and watered again with mullein or add urea at the rate of 4.4 kg per 1 cubic meter. mixtures.

Sod land usually harvested in early summer or early autumn, when there is no massive growth of weeds. It is best to take it in meadows where cereals and clover are grown,
in a deciduous forest from the upper dark soil layer. Areas with growing sorrel, horsetail or sedge are not suitable, as the soil under them is acidic. In low-lying areas, it is also better not to collect sod land, since the soil there is with high acidity. Sod land is often the basis of seedling soil, so it would be a good idea to prepare it.

To obtain an ideal turf land, you need to make a cube of 150 × 150 × 150 cm from turf plates up to 50 cm long, up to 25 cm wide and up to 10 cm thick.It is no longer necessary to ensure that the air flow to the turf is sufficient, but from less, the earth will dry. Lay the sod plates the grass to the grass. At the very top, make a depression into which rainwater will fall.Moisten the cube with manure solution and mix 2-3 times per season. After a year pass the turf soil through a metal mesh (mesh size 3-4 cm), as if sift it. After that, it can be used for its intended purpose, i.e. turf land is being prepared for 2 years. Unused sod land is stored indoors. The acidity of the resulting earth will be in the range of pH 7–7.5.

For fertility and looseness of the soil, use compost soil, which includes plant residues, food waste, feces.

It is not difficult to prepare compost soil: all the "ingredients" are mixed in one heap and periodically mixed by pouring mullein solution over the course of three years.

Coniferous land used for growing heather plants (heather, bearberry, wild rosemary, rhododendron, azalea and others).

Coniferous soil is made from the lower layer of litter in a fir or pine forest. Take the rotten needles, and put them in a bundle. In the summer, stir 2-3 times, pour water with the addition of moss and mullein solution. The acidity level of such soil is very low pH 4-5.

Heather land
is collected in areas with dense heather growth, in coniferous forests. It has a rich gray color. The layer consists of rotten leaves, stems and roots of heather, its thickness is only 4-6 cm. It is used to grow ferns, rhododendrons and camellias.

Gather up the heather soil, lay in a stack and moisturize without letting dry for a year. Sift through a mesh before use.

Heather soil can be replaced with a soil mixture: leaf, peat soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 4: 1. Do not overdry.

What plants do ferns in the garden combine with and what diseases and pests threaten them

Due to the beauty of openwork leaves and bushes in general, ferns take pride of place in the design of the site. Photos of such compositions are very natural and beautiful.

Attention! The fern rhizome quickly spreads over the site, so the installation of limiters is mandatory.

The combination of fern with lilies and arrowhead by the pond will give the plot a special charm. On shady rock gardens, you can place low varieties next to flowering creeping plants, for example, periwinkle.

We can say that the combination of ferns in the garden is possible with any shade-tolerant plants: hosts, astilbe, ditch, etc.

The plant is not affected by diseases, if the rules of care are followed. Of the pests, slugs and caterpillars can be noted, which damage the leaves.

The fern can be called a bright decoration of a shady area that does not require much attention. Its cultivation is available to absolutely everyone, even to inexperienced gardeners.

Fan leaves: types of ferns and their features

Amazing ferns with filigree frond leaves are a special consideration for gardeners. They are able to transform any shady corner and create a magical atmosphere in the garden, similar to that that reigned in ancient times.

These legendary decorative-leaved perennials fascinate and take prisoner from the moment of their "birth": young shoots (sometimes not only green) appear from the ground twisted like snail shells. Then they gradually unfold, turning into openwork fans with an exquisite structure.

The ideal location for most ferns is in the shady waterfront. Such conditions are as comfortable as possible for the development of these plants.

Ferns are ideal candidates for landscaping shady areas in the garden. At the same time, some species rest in winter (their aboveground part dies off during cold weather), while others retain their leafy outfit until new shoots appear in the spring (mnogoryadnik bristle-bearing) or do not lose it at all, for example, like an evergreen derbyanka. Also, our heroes differ in height, shades of greenery and even the structure of wai - leaf plates-fans.

It is interesting:
Ferns do not have real leaves. They have leaf plates called vayas. Young, not yet unfolded fronds, consisting only of a central vein and a petiole, are called rakhis. By the way, they are edible in the bracken and the ostrich operator. The rachises of these plants are harvested while they are still rolled into a snail.

Ferns have no true leaves. They have leaf plates called vayas.

Ferns add airiness flower beds and due to the variety of colors of leaf plates often serve as the main accents... So the giants royal purest (Osmunda regalis) and common bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) reach two meters in height and are the first to catch the eye in any landing. One of the most advantageous leafy outfits is the Athyrium niponicum: its reddish-silver fronds with a metallic sheen seem to glow in the shade. This effect can be enhanced by planting herbaceous perennials with dark leaves nearby. And here undersized species, such as the shrimp or maidenhair, play rather a secondary role: in colorful flower beds, they harmoniously dilute the flashy colors.

  • Hairy bone (Asplenium trichomanes) is an elegant candidate for masking dry wall joints. Grows well both in the sun and in partial shade.

  • Thick rhizome (Dryopteris crassirhizoma) impresses with its wide openwork leaves. The shimmering sheen of the fan up to 60 cm long will brighten any dark corner in the garden.

Left: hairy bone. Right: thick rhizome

  • Plaunok swiss (Selaginella helvetica), very fern-like, forms dense, low clumps and is considered an excellent groundcover.

  • Nippon kochedyzhnik (Athyrium niponicum) 'Metallicum' with reddish-silvery leaves looks spectacular in any planting. Since the plant prefers slightly acidic soils, it makes an excellent companion for rhododendrons.

Left: Swiss plunk. Right: Nippon Cossack 'Metallicum'

Among the ferns, there are also ground cover species, for example, the adorable maidenhair (Adianthum), which spreads in a lush carpet. Such plants often form dense clumps, with the help of which you can create especially successful transitions both in the flower garden itself and on its border. For instance, Derbyanka sea feather (Blechnum penna- marina) gives the border zone between planting and stone steps a more natural look, smoothing the transition line. Even for greening the seams of dry masonry walls, a suitable candidate can be found, for example Kostenets... And although you will most likely not be able to find the magic fern flower in your garden on Ivan Kupala, this plant, as ancient as the world, is in itself like a precious treasure. It will not only delight the eye, but also serve as a powerful natural amulet for your green oasis.

  • Maidenhair foot (Adianthum pedatum) fascinates with fronds growing horizontally in tiers. Young shoots are bronze colored. Fronds on petioles up to 50 cm long are considered a great addition to flower bouquets.

  • Centipede leaflet (Phyllitis scolopendrium) is interesting in that, depending on the lighting, it changes the color of the leaves: in the shade they are dark green, but the more light falls on them, the lighter their color.

Left: foot maidenhair. Right: centipede leaf

  • Red-horned duckweed (Dryopteris erythrosora) forms reddish brown young shoots. Later, glossy fronds with a length of 30 to 50 cm unfold.

  • Derbyanka sea feather (Blechum penna-marina) is a lovely ground cover plant with a height of only 10–20 cm.

Left: krasnosorusovy duckweed. Right: Derbyanka sea feather

You can choose different types of ferns using our market, where offers from the largest online stores are collected. View a selection of ferns and compare prices.

Watch the video: 100+ Ferns Identification. Fern Varieties. Best Decorative Plants for Indoor. Lipsha World